Sunday, May 29, 2011

RESEARCH ON ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM

1. On the 3 types of education:
a. What are the salient differences of the types of education?
          The salient difference on the three types of education in the Philippines lies on the following:
Formal Education

Non Formal Education

Informal Education

- Process of training and developing people in knowledge, skills, mind, and character in a structure and certified program.
- Structured educational system provided by the state for children. In most countries, the formal education system is state-supported and state-operated. In some countries, the state allows and certifies private systems which provide a comparable education.
- Any organized, systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal system of education to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population.
- refers to education which takes place outside of the formally organized school
- typically refers to adult literacy and continuing education for adults
- it is not compulsory
- it does not lead to a formal certification, and
- it may or may not be state-supported.

- A lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires
and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights from the daily experiences at home, at work, at play and from life itself.
- Incidental learning
 b. Whether we agree or not, the aim of the three types of education is to cultivate personality integration and creative intelligence or to foster natural human development and growth in freedom.
c. Classifying Education is merely for better understanding of education per se and what each type of education caters to.
d. Non Formal Education is what is best for me. This is in the sense that skills are what society demands today.
2. a. Alternative Education is ensconced within the boundaries of the Non Formal
Education since this warrants more on skills building even without the aid of the formal
schools.
3. Weaknesses and Strength of the General Types of ALS
General Types of ALS

Strength

Weaknesses


1. Home Schools


























2. Charter Schools
























3. Private/Independent Schools






















4. Boarding Schools



















5. International Schools






































6. Catholic Schools/
Religious Schools




























7. Open universities /Open colleges
- Student paced
- Students are within the comfort of their homes
- Children pursue knowledge based on their line of interest


















-operate as autonomous public schools, through waivers from many of the procedural requirements of district public schools
- principals and teachers had more control and flexibility about work rules and school duties









- privately financed;
can avoid some state regulations, although in the name of educational quality, most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes
- provide services tailored to the very specific needs of individual students.
- better quality physical
infrastructure and more facilities



- develop wider horizons than their family can provide
- it is a way for parents to get rid of their children’s misdemeanors











- adopt an international curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate
- predominantly committed to the notion of internationalism and the global citizen and providing an environment for optimal learning and teaching in an international setting that fosters understanding, independence, interdependence,
and cooperation require teachers trained specifically for an international syllabus or for teaching a foreign language rare to the international school's country of origin





- aim to focus on the development
of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith. The leaders, teachers and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, and action and social justice.





- less formal structure than traditional universities
- known for open-door entry policies, where no particular academic qualifications are needed for entry into degree granting or other academic enrichment programs


- Lack of socialization
- Children sheltered from mainstream society, or denied opportunities that are their right, such as social development
- Potential for development of parallel societies that do not fit into standards of citizenship and the community
- Inadequate standards of academic quality and comprehensiveness





- held accountable to their sponsor to produce positive academic results and adhere to the charter contract
- Charter school proponents can assert that charter schools are not given the opportunities to restructure often and are simply closed down when students perform poorly based on assessments.





- use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion
- expensive in many ways as these schools demand high tuition fees






- involve long-term separation from one's parents and culture, leading to the experience of homesickness and may give rise to a phenomenon known as the 'TCK' or third culture kid
- one form of permanent displacement of the child




- cater for the wealthy and privileged
- purely a way of commercializing education
- widen the gap between the rich and the poor because of high tuition fees





























- High tuition fees
- Religious centered




























- Activities are more difficult and tiresome than those offered at traditional universities


4. a. Accordingly, Home Schools and Open Universities/Open colleges employ the student-paced learning, all in one curricula and to date the online education; Private/ Independent schools, Boarding Schools, Charter Schools and Catholic/Religious Schools are more inclined with the Montessori Method as well as the unit studies method; Schools for at Risk and Dropout prevention schools have been on the run for the all in one curricula, child to child approach and the student paced.
b. The Philippines does not practice boarding schools as the country is trying its best to provide education to its constituents and it adheres to the imperative role of parents in molding their children. However, private/independent schools, Catholic/Religious Schools, International Schools and Open Universities/Colleges abound in the country. The concept of charter schools are imbedded within the context of the private schools so far. Schools at Risk and Drop Out Prevention are catered to by the mobile teachers either volunteers or permanent under the Bureau of Alternative Education. For Examples:
Type of School
Example
1. Private/Independent




2. International School



3. Catholic/Religious Schools




4. Open Universities/Colleges








5. Home Schools
a. St. Mary’s High Schools - Sagada
b. St. James’ High School – Besao
c. St. Vincent’s’ – Bontoc

a. Cebu International School
b. Brent International School
c. International School Manila

a. St. Mary’s High Schools - Sagada
b. St. James’ High School – Besao
c. St. Vincent’s’ – Bontoc

a. University of the Philippines, Open University (UPOU)
b. Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Open University (PUP OU)
c. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Open University (PLM OU)

a. AAA HOMESCHOOL
b. ACADEME ALTERNATIVE HOMESCHOOL
c. ADVANCE HOME EDUCATION HOMESCHOOL

5. a. On the legal bases of ALS
Legal Bases of ALS
Content
1. Article 14 of the Phil. Constitution
Section 4. Encourage non formal, informal and indigenous learning systems as well as self learning, independent and out of school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs.
Section 5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled, out of school youths with training in civics, vocational efficiency and other skills.
2. Executive Order 117, Section 15
Sec. 15. Bureau of Continuing Education, hereby renamed as Bureau of Non-Formal Education. The Bureau of Continuing Education shall have the following functions:

(a) Serve as a means of meeting the learning needs of those unable to avail themselves of the educational services and program of formal education;
(b) Coordinate with various agencies in providing opportunities for the acquisition of skills necessary to enhance and ensure continuing employability, efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness in the labor market;

(c) Serve as means of expanding access to educational opportunities to citizens of varied interests, demographic characteristics and socio- economic origins of status.
3. DepEd Order No. 32, 1972
The ALS A&E Test formerly known as the Non formal Education A&E Test is a multiple choice paper and pencil test. The test is designed to measure the competencies of those who have not finished either the formal elementary or secondary education.
Passers of this test are given a certificate/diploma (which bears the seal and the signature of the
Department Secretary) certifying their competencies as comparable to graduates of the
formal school system. Hence, they are qualified to enroll in high school (for elementary level passers) and to enroll in college (for secondary level passers).
4. Proclamation No. 480
Declared the period from 1990 to 1999 as the Decade of Education for All, with the goal of meeting the educational needs of the poor and under educated.
5. DECS Memo No. 204 s. 1998
Announced the NONFORMAL EDUCATION ACCREDITATION AND EQUIVALENCY (A&E) SYSTEM OF DEPARTMENT EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS
6. DECS Order No. 22 and 28 s. 1999
DECS Order No. 22 s. 1999 - PILOT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NON FORMAL EDUCATION ACCREDITATION AND EQUIVALENCY
(NFE A&E) SYSTEM

DECS Order No. 28 s. 1999 - REVISED POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS



b. Evolution of ALS A&E in the Philippines

RENAMING THE BNFE TO BALS
E.O. 356 (20040



BUREAU OF NON FORMAL EDUCATION
E.O. No. 117 (19870



BUREAU OF CONTINUING EDUCATION



POSITION FOR THE UNDERSECRETARY
OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION WAS 
CREATED BY THE PHILIPPINE
CONSTITUTION OF 1973



ADULT AND COMMUNITY
EDUCATION DIVISION (1947)


OFFICE OF ADULT EDUCATION
Commonwealth Act No. 80 (1936)


CIVIC MOVEMENT
Act. No. 1829 (19080




6. On the Components of ALS


Components of ALS A & E
Programs
1. NFE A&E curriculum framework
- With 5 learning areas: Communication Skills,
Problem Solving and Critical Thinking,
Sustainable use of Resources/Productivity,
Development of Self and Sense of Community, Expanding One’s World Vision
2. NFE A&E learning materials
-learning modules, audio tapes, print and non-print supplementary materials
3. NFE A&E learning support delivery system
- using inter-agency with NGO’s , LGU’s, and other organizations to provide learners a range of flexible learning support services in order that they may continue their learning outside of the formal school system and upgrade their skills and competencies in preparation for taking the ALS A&E test.
- aims to provide an alternative pathway of the learning to the formal school system comparable to elementary or secondary school.
4. NFE accreditation and equivalency testing
- ALS A&E Test is formerly known as the Nonformal Education A&E Test (NFE A&E). It offers examiners certification of learning achievements equivalent to the elementary or secondary level of the formal school.





































































7.  On the ALS  A&E Test
        ALS A & E Test is formerly known as the Nonformal Education A & E Test (NFE A& E). It offers examiners certifications of learning achievements equivalent to the elementary or secondary level of the formal school.

8. Present the ALS of at least 5 Asian countries. Highlight their strengths.

Country
Present Condition
1. Japan
Alternative learning system was merely for children with disabilities, regardless of the severity, were enrolled to Special Schools;  Some public and private schools, usually non-competitive ones, had been functioning as American-equivalent of alternative schools to accept "at-risk” students, though most of them never claimed themselves as one. A private boarding High school, Hokusei-Gakuen Yoichi, being one of the few exceptions, admitted its status as the alternative school and started to accept High school drop outs from all over the countrysince 1988.
2. Indonesia
Basic Functional Literacy Program, Vocational Training Program, Survival Skills Program together with the Visiting Teacher Model is the alternative
approaches of the Indonesian government to formal education. At present, these alternatives are currently addressing the problem of illiteracy, under literacy and drop outs in the country
3. China
Adult education has become increasingly important in helping China meet its modernization goals. Adult, or "nonformal," education is an alternative form of higher education that encompasses radio, television, and correspondence universities, spare-time and part-time universities, factory-run universities for staff and workers, and county-run universities for peasants, many operating primarily during students' off-work hours. These alternative forms of education are economical. They seek to educate
both the "delayed generation"--those who lost educational opportunities during the Cultural Revolution--and to raise the cultural, scientific, and general education levels of workers on the job.
4. Taiwan
Supplementary education provides citizens with an alternative way to achieve their educational goals. Based on the curriculum provided, it is classified into three main categories: basic education; advanced education; and short-term supplementary education. The study periods vary according to their curriculum design. Only designated schools are allowed to admit students who are mentally or physically challenged. Special education in preschool education and primary school requires at least six years; in junior high school, three years; and in senior high and senior vocational school, three years. Special classes are offered by regular education institutions, including primary, junior and senior secondary schools.
5. Bangladesh
Subjects studied in Alternative Education
- Functional Skill - Literacy
- Functional Skill - Numeracy
- Functional Skill - ICT
- English - Working towards and including GCSE level
- Mathematics - Working towards and including GCSE level
- ICT - Working towards and including GCSE level
- Personal social and health education
- Design and Technology

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